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The chemical composition including the Rare Earth Elements of the three major glass types of Europe and the Orient used in late antiquity and the Middle Ages

Hits: 1298
Year:
2011
Type of Publication:
Artikel
Schlüsselwörter:
Rare Earth Elements
Autoren:
Wedepohl, Karl Hans; Simon, Klaus; Kronz, Andreas
Journal:
Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry
Volume:
71
Nummer:
3
Seiten:
289 - 296
ISSN:
0009-2819
BibTex:
Kurzzusammenfassung:
Sets of 20 soda ash glasses, 16 soda lime glasses and 23 wood ash glasses mainly from excavations in Europe (additional soda ash glasses from Egypt) were analysed on 61 chemical elements. Average SiO2 is about 62% in soda glasses and 50% in wood ash glasses. The three groups of glasses contain on average 13% Na2O, 18% Na2O and 13% K2O as fluxes to lower the melting temperature of quartz at their production. The starting materials beside quartz were halophytic plant ash for soda ash glass, trona (Na3H(CO3)2·2H2O) and lime (clamshells) for soda lime glass and beech ash for wood ash glass. Each of the three major glass types contains specific Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations mainly contained in quartz and its intergrown minerals. 50 Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstones from Central Europe represent the quartz composition. The REE pattern of these glasses apparently indicates major compositional stages of the Continental Earth's Crust. The boron to lithium and sodium to potassium ratios as in seawater suggest reactions of materials for soda glass with seawater. Negative Ce anomalies in the three glasses are caused by reactions of quartz with seawater.
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